The possibility of electrification in public transport bus services
Keywords:electrification, electric bus, public transport, zero emissions, circular economy, Vehicle-to-grid, pilot project description
From Shenzhen to Philadelphia and Izmir to Delhi, public bus operators around the world are increasingly using electric buses. Their choice is not only justified by support for the green transition or the reduction of background traffic noise: economic calculations regarding the entire life cycle cost also support the need for technological change. The article points out that the inclusion of electric vehicles in the service requires a complex approach and can bring a revolutionary change in our operation. The transport company can become a community service provider that occasionally provides balancing energy for energy supply systems (Vehicle-to-grid, i.e. V2G) or provides a virtual power plant service to the operators of photovoltaic power plants. The bus company can become a producer with independent network power generation capacity, which can sell the excess capacity it produces on the market to the owners of electric cars. The article presents the operating model that connects the transport, energy and battery industrial systems. Last but not least, batteries that have lost their capacity but are still usable can be resold for “storage” or other secondary purposes, even as uninterruptible power supplies. In order to implement the operation according to the model, Volánbusz Zrt. started building its data-driven ecosystem, which enables cost-optimized operation based on the data of an ever-growing electric bus fleet and the solutions of Industry 4.0 technology.
Kruchina, V.: The industrial revolution of our age: the opportunities in the electrification of public transport buses. Advanced Logistic Systems – Theory and Practice, 17 (1) (2023) pp. 21-26. https://doi.org/10.32971/als.2023.002
Wartiovaara, A., Aspivaara, C., Nyman, S., 2023, Megatrends 2023: these are the trends we cannot ignore [cited 2023-10-15]. https://www.sitra.fi/en/news/megatrends-2023-these-are-the-trends-we-cannot-ignore/
Electric bus registrations and sales shares by region, 2015-2021 [cited 2023-10-15]. https://www.iea.org/data-and-statistics/charts/electric-bus-registrations-and-sales-shares-by-region-2015-2021)
Electric bus, main fleets and projects around the world (2023) [cited 2023-10-15]. https://www.sustainable-bus.com/electric-bus/electric-bus-public-transport-main-fleets-projects-around-world/
Kruchina V., Sárközi Gy. T., Az elektrifikáció térnyerése és az elektromos autóbuszok kiemelt szerepe a fenntartható közösségi közlekedésben 1. rész. Közlekedéstudományi Szemle 73 (3) (2023) pp. 18-35. https://doi.org/10.24228/KTSZ.2023.3.2
Kruchina V., Sárközi Gy. T., Az elektrifikáció térnyerése és az elektromos autóbuszok kiemelt szerepe a fenntartható közösségi közlekedésben 2. rész. Közlekedéstudományi Szemle 73 (4) (2023) pp. 4-13. https://doi.org/10.24228/KTSZ.2023.4.1
Hensher D. A., Wei E., Balbontin C.: Comparative assessment of zero emission electric and hydrogen buses in Australia, 2022, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2021.103130
Pardo-Ferreira M. del C., Rubio-Romero J. C., Galindo-Reyes F. C., Lopez-Arcillos A.: Work-related road safety: The impact of the low noise levels produced by electric vehicles according to experienced drivers, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2019.02.021
Commission Regulation (EU) 2022/1379 [cited 2023-10-15]. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reg/2022/1379
Electric Buses in Cities: Driving Towards Cleaner Air and Lower CO2, BloombergNEF, 10 April 2018 [cited 2023-10-15]. https://about.bnef.com/blog/electric-buses-cities-driving-towards-cleaner-air-lower-co2/
Offer G.J., Howey D., Contestabile M., Clague R., Brandon N.P.: Comparative analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system (2010) Energy Policy, 38 (1), pp. 24 – 29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.08.040
Antti Lajunen: Energy consumption and cost-benefit analysis of hybrid and electric city buses, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 38 (2014) pp. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2013.10.008.
Kunith A., Mendelevitch R., Goehlich D.: Electrification of a city bus network—An optimization model for cost-effective placing of charging infrastructure and battery sizing of fast-charging electric bus systems. Internati-onal Journal of Sustainable Transportation 11 (10) (2017) pp. 707 – 720. https://doi.org/10.1080/15568318.2017.1310962
Lozanovski, A.; Whitehouse, N.; Ko, N.; Whitehouse, S. Sustainability Assessment of Fuel Cell Buses in Public Transport. Sustainability 10 (2018) 1480. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051480
Połom, M.; Wiśniewski, P. Implementing Electromobility in Public Transport in Poland in 1990–2020. A Review of Experiences and Evaluation of the Current Development Directions. Sustainability 13 (7) (2021) 4009. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13074009
Kim, H.; Hartmann, N.; Zeller, M.; Luise, R.; Soylu, T. Comparative TCO Analysis of Battery Electric and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Buses for Public Transport System in Small to Midsize Cities. Energies 14 (2021) 4384. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144384
A Vision for a Sustainable Battery Value Chainin 2030 Report, (2019), Global Battery Allianz, World Economic Forum [cited 2023-10-15]. https://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_A_Vision_for_a_Sustainable_Battery_Value_Chain_in_2030_Report.pdf
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Acta Technica Jaurinensis
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.