A comparative analysis of road and rail freight transport through the Republic of Serbia from the aspect of external costs


  • Nikola Petrović Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Niš, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, 18106, Niš, Serbia
  • Vesna Jovanović Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Niš, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, 18106, Niš, Serbia
  • Boban Nikolić Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Niš, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, 18106, Niš, Serbia
  • Jovan Pavlović Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Niš, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, 18106, Niš, Serbia
  • Jelena Mihajlović Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Niš, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, 18106, Niš, Serbia




External costs, Internalisation, Modes of transport


Transport causes significant external effects that have a very harmful impact on the environment, human health, but also the economy. The costs of these external effects are not borne directly by those who caused them, but by other road users (congestion, accidents) and society as a whole (environmental pollution costs). This results in making wrong decisions in the transport market, which further leads to an inefficient use of available resources and loss of social welfare. The purpose of this paper is a comparative analysis of negative external costs arising from freight road and rail transport. The main goal of the paper is to quantify the external costs caused by two different modes of freight transport, based on the characteristics of the transport vehicles and the characteristics of the goods being transported, as well as the length of the goods transport. The road and rail freight transport through Serbia will be chosen as the case study.


Download data is not yet available.


N. Petrović, N. Bojović, M. Petrović, V. Jovanović, A study of the environmental Kuznets curve for transport greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union, Facta Universitatis Series: Mechanical Engineering 18 (3) (2020) pp. 513 – 524. https://doi.org/10.22190/FUME171212010P

A. Ljungberg, Marginal cost-pricing in the Swedish transport sector – An efficient and sustainable way of funding local and regional public transport in the future?, Research in Transport Economics 59 (2016) pp. 159-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.retrec.2016.05.005

Handbook on the external costs of transport – Version 2019, European Commission, Brussels (2019) [cited 2022-02-15] https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/9781f65f-8448-11ea-bf12-01aa75ed71a1

Republic Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Calendar of the Republic of Serbia-2021, online edition, Belgrade (2021) [cited 2022-02-16] https://publikacije.stat.gov.rs/G2021/pdf/G202117014.pdf

Z. Bokor, Cost Calculation in Transport Companies, Acta Technica Jaurinensis 5 (3) (2012) pp. 253-262. https://acta.sze.hu/index.php/acta/article/view/61

L. Lazarević, M. Kovačević, Z. Popović, Rail traffic volume estimation based on world development indicators, Facta Universitatis Series: Mechanical Engineering 13 (2) (2015) pp. 133–141.

F. Petroa, V. Konečnýa, Calculation of emissions from transport services and their use for the internalisation of external costs in road transport, Procedia Engineering 192 (2017) pp. 677 – 682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.06.117

E. Christen, B. Meinhart, F. Sinabell, G. Streicher, External Costs of Freight Transport - Relevance and Implications of Internalization at the European Level, SUERF Policy Brief 221 (2021) https://www.suerf.org/docx/f_35c0435bac5b49fc667bd23a5c49fea1_35885_suerf.pdf

J. Cravioto, E. Yamasue, H. Okumura, N. K. Ishihara, Road transport externalities in Mexico: Estimates and international comparisons, Transport Policy 30 (2013) pp. 63-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2013.08.004

A. Agarwal, B. Kickhoefer, The correlation of externalities in marginal cost pricing: lessons learned from a real-world case study, Transportation 45 (2018) pp. 849–873. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-016-9753-z

C. Ortolani, A. Persona, F. Sgarbossa, Modeling external transport costs in distribution networks, POMS 20th Annual Conference Orlando, Florida U.S.A. (2009) May 1 - 4.

J. R. Javid, A. Nejat, K. Hayhoe, Selection of CO2 mitigation strategies for road transportation in the United States using a multi-criteria approach, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 38 (2014) pp. 960-972. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.005

I. Ivković, Research of performances of the Compressed Natural Gas powered bus in terms of safety and environmental influence, Ph.D. thesis, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering (2012). https://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/handle/123456789/2665

M. Maibach, C. Schreyer, D. Sutter, H. P. Essen, B. H. Boon, R. Smokers, A. Schroten, C. Doll, B. Pawlowska, M. Bak, Handbook on estimation of external costs in the transport sector - Produced within the study Internalisation Measures and Policies for All external Cost of Transport (IMPACT), CE Delft (2008).

A. Korzhenevych, N. Dehnen, J. Bröcker, M. Holtkamp, H. Meier, G. Gibson, A. Varma, V. Cox, Update of the Handbook on External Costs of Transport, European Commission – DG Mobility and Transport, Ricardo –AEA, Issue 1 (2014).

H. Essen, E. Andrew, D. Sutter, et al., Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport, Sustainable transport infrastructure charging and internalisation of transport externalities:main findings, European Commission, Publications Office (2019). [cited 2022-02-17] https://data.europa.eu/doi/10.2832/004905

N. Petrović, B. Krstić, J. Petrović, Evaluation of freight transport modes based on external costs, Proceedings of 14th International conference on accomplishments in mechanical and industrial engineering, University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (2019) pp. 579-584.

A. Kolin, S. E. Silantyev, P. Rogov, M. E. Gnenik, Methods and simulation to reduce fuel consumption in driving cycles for category N1 motor vehicles. Acta Technica Jaurinensis 14(4) (2021) pp. 477–487. https://doi.org/10.14513/actatechjaur.00593

A. Schroten, H. Essen, RAnthes, External Cost Calculator, Methodology report, CE Delft, Delft (2011).

M. Dementyeva, P. R. Koster, E. T. Verhoef, Regulation of road accident externalities when insurance companies have market power, Journal of Urban Economics 86 (2015) pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jue.2014.11.001

H. Essen, A. Schroten, M. Otten, D. Sutter, C. Schreyer, C. Zandonella, M. Maibach, C. Doll, External Costs of Transport in Europe - Update Study for 2008, CE Delft, Delft (2011).

S. M. Kaplanović, Internalisation of external costs for the purpose of providing sustainable development of road transport, Ph.D. thesis (in Serbian), University of Belgrade, Faculty of economics(2012). https://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/bitstream/handle/123456789/2214/Disertacija.pdf?sequence=4&isAllowed=y

Adriatic - Danube - Black Sea multimodal platform, WP 6: “ADB and Green Transport”, Project title: Autonomous Region of Friuli Venezia Giulia (2013) [cited 2022-02-17] http://amministrazioneaperta.regione.fvg.it/openadmin/p/files/50f9404c-e25d-4e9d-8ac5-5e52b25ecb6a




How to Cite

Petrović, N., Jovanović, V., Nikolić, B., Pavlović, J., & Mihajlović, J. (2022). A comparative analysis of road and rail freight transport through the Republic of Serbia from the aspect of external costs. Acta Technica Jaurinensis, 15(3), 130–137. https://doi.org/10.14513/actatechjaur.00655



Research articles