A Survey on the Use-Cases and Deployment Efforts Toward Converged Internet of Things (IoT) and Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Environments
Keywords:IoT-V2X convergence, Internet of Vehicles, Cooperative ITS, V2X applications, technology evolution
In the past few years, automotive Internet of Things (IoT) solutions have become one of the most significant IoT application areas in the shape of vehicular communication to connect vehicles and such the so-called Internet of Vehicles (IoV) to be used in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) environments. With an increasing level of cooperation, ITS could facilitate smart city operations by providing cooperative intelligent traffic solutions. Modern Cooperative ITS (C-ITS) solutions have started to be implemented in the whole world with various deployment models and significant improvements in the integration of Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communication and IoT solutions. To highlight the current V2X technology evolution towards an IoT/IoV era, this paper presents a comprehensive survey about the convergence between IoT and V2X use-cases together with their supporting technologies in the cooperative ITS ecosystem worldwide. We show how IoT could enable advanced V2X applications to get widespread and increase ITS efficiency.
D. Evans, How the Next Evolution of the Internet Is Changing Everything, Cisco Internet Business Solutions Group (IBSG), (2011). URL http://188.8.131.52:81/Krishna Akalamkam/digital marketing/articles/The Internet of Things_.pdf
B. Umar, H. Hejazi et al, Evaluation of IoT Device Management Tools, ACCSE 2018: The Third International Conference on Advances in Computation, Communications and Services, (2018), pp. 22–26.
A. Napolitano, Implementation of a MEC-based vulnerable road user warning system, Jul. 2019, pp. 1-6. doi: https://doi.org/10.23919/EETA.2019.8804497
E. Torres-Zapata, V. Guerra et al, Vehicular communications in tunnels using VLC, Jul.2019, pp. 1-6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/ConTEL.2019.8848500
A. Mai and D. Schlesinger, A Business Case for Connecting Vehicles, April, (2011). URLhttps://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en_us/about/ac79/docs/mfg/Connected-Vehicles_Exec_Summary.pdf
S. GSMA, GSMA Connected Living programme: mAutomotive Executive summary, (2012).URL https://www.gsma.com/iot/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/gsmaconnectingcarsthetechnologyroadmapv2.pdf
SBD, Connected Car Global Forecast 2015, (2015) [cited 2020-06-19]. URL https://www.sbdautomotive.com/files/sbd/pdfs/536 connected car forecast ib 15.pdf
Pwc, Connected car report 2016, PwC 2016, (2016) [cited 2020-06-19]. URL: www.pwc.com/digital
I. Ivanov, C. Maple et al, Cyber security standards and issues in V2X communications for Internet of vehicles, IET Conference Publications, 2018, vol. 2018, no. CP740, pp. 1–6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1049/cp.2018.0046
W. Anwar, N. Franchi et al, Physical layer evaluation of V2X communications technologies: 5G NR-V2X, LTE-V2X, IEEE 802.11bd, and IEEE 802.11p, IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 2019, vol. 2019-Septe, pp. 1–7. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/VTCFall.2019.8891313
S. Datta, J. Harri et al, Integrating connected vehicles in Internet of Things ecosystems: Challenges and solutions, WoWMoM 2016 - 17th International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, (2016), pp. 1-6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/WoWMoM.2016.7523574
K. Kiela, M. Jurgo et al, Structure of V2X-IoT framework for ITS applications, 2020 43rd International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing, TSP 2020, 2020, pp. 229–234. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/TSP49548.2020.9163539
A. A. Brincat, F. Pacifici et al, The Internet of Things for Intelligent Transportation Systems in Real Smart Cities Scenarios, IEEE 5th World Forum on Internet of Things, WF-IoT 2019 - Conference Proceedings, 2019, pp. 128–132. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/WF-IoT.2019.8767247
S. Husain, A. Kunz et al, An overview of standardization efforts for enabling vehicular-To-everything services, 2017 IEEE Conference on Standards for Communications and Networking, CSCN 2017, Oct. 2017, pp. 109–114. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/CSCN.2017.8088607
R. Chitanvis, N. Ravi et al, Collision avoidance and Drone surveillance using Thread protocol in V2V and V2I communications, Proceedings of the IEEE National Aerospace Electronics Conference, NAECON, Jul. 2019, vol. 2019-July, pp. 406–411. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/NAECON46414.2019.9058170
J. Lozano and T. Mateo, Review on V2X, I2X, and P2X Communications and Their Applications: A Comprehensive Analysis over Time, Sensors, 2019, vol. 19, no. 12, p. 2756.doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122756
J. Choi, V. Marojevic, and C. DIetrich, Measurements and Analysis of DSRC for V2T Safety-Critical Communications, IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 2018, vol. 2018-August, pp. 1-5. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/VTCFall.2018.8691032
R. Jurgen, V2V/V2I Communications for Improved Road Safety and Efficiency, V2V/V2I Communications for Improved Road Safety and Efficiency, SAE, 2012, pp.i-viii.
U.S. Department of Transportation, V2P Devices and Applications, p. 2004, (2005), [cited 2020-06-21]. URL: www.its.dot.gov
WHO, Global Status Report on Road Safety 2018, (2018). URL https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241565684
A. Hussein, F. García et al, P2V and V2P communication for pedestrian warning on the basis of autonomous vehicles, IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC, Dec. 2016, pp. 2034–2039. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/ITSC.2016.7795885
K. Lakhtaria, Analyzing Zone Routing Protocol in MANET Applying Authentic Parameter, 2010, pp. 114-118. URL http://arxiv.org/abs/1012.2510
F. Barsotti, A. Caruso, and S. Chessa, The localized vehicular multicast middleware: A framework for Ad Hoc inter-vehicles multicast communications, WSEAS Transactions on Communications, 2006,vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 1763–1768.
C. Sharma and N. Gondhi, Communication Protocol Stack for Constrained IoT Systems, 2018 3rd International Conference On Internet of Things: Smart Innovation and Usages (IoT-SIU), 2018, pp. 1-6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/IoT-SIU.2018.8519904
H. Hejazi, Investigation and Testing IoT Platforms Manufacture and Architecture, Master thesis, Budapest University of Technology and Economics (2018). URL https://diplomaterv.vik.bme.hu/en/Theses/Investigation-and-Testing-IoT-Platforms
C. Liu, K. Chau et al, Opportunities and challenges of vehicle-to-home, vehicle-to-vehicle, and vehicle-to-grid technologies, Proceedings of the IEEE, 2013, vol. 101, no. 11, pp. 2409–2427, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2013.2271951
V. Monteiro, J. Pinto, J. Afonso, Operation Modes for the Electric Vehicle in Smart Grids and Smart Homes: Present and Proposed Modes, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2016, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 1007–1020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/TVT.2015.2481005
A. Bustamante, S. Inca et al, Design of a V2V communications antenna based on LTE technology and IEEE802.11p standard, Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE 24th International Congress on Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computing, INTERCON 2017, Aug. 2017, pp. 1–4. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/INTERCON.2017.8079710
R. Weber, J. Misener, V. Park, C-V2X - A communication technology for cooperative, connected and automated mobility, 24. ITG-Symposium on Mobile Communication - Technologies and Applications, 2020, pp. 111–116.
H. Abou-Zeid, F. Pervez et al, Cellular V2X Transmission for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles Standardization, Applications, and Enabling Technologies, IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, 2019, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 91–98. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/MCE.2019.2941467
K. Ahmed, M. Lee, Secure LTE-Based V2X Service,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 2018, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 3724–3732. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/JIOT.2017.2697949
H. Hejazi, H. Rajab et al, survey of platforms for massive IoT, 2018 IEEE International Conference on Future IoT Technologies, Future IoT 2018, Mar. 2018, vol. 2018-January, pp. 1–8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/FIOT.2018.8325598
A. Kunz, L. Nkenyereye, J. Song, 5G Evolution of Cellular IoT for V2X, 2018 IEEE Conference on Standards for Communications and Networking (CSCN), 2018, pp. 1-6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/CSCN.2018.8581830
C. Storck, F. Duarte-Figueiredo, A 5G V2X ecosystem providing Internet of vehicles,” Sensors (Switzerland), 2019, vol. 19, no. 3, p. 550. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030550
M. Agiwal, A. Roy, N. Saxena, Next generation 5G wireless networks: A comprehensive survey, IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, 2016, vol. 18, no. 3. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., pp. 1617–1655. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/COMST.2016.2532458
S. Singh, D2D and V2X Communications, 5G System Design, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2018, pp. 409–449. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119425144.ch14
B. Gopal, P. Kuppusamy, A Comparative Study on 4G and 5G Technology for Wireless Applications, IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering, 2015, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 2278–2834.
S. Chen, Vehicle-to-Everything (v2x) Services Supported by LTE-Based Systems and 5G, IEEE Communications Standards Magazine, 2017, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 70–76. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/MCOMSTD.2017.1700015
P. Gaudillat, I. Antonopoulos et al, Best Environmental Management Practice for the Public Administration Sector. 2017. doi: https://doi.org/10.2760/202143
E. Strickland, 3 Ways Ford Cars Could Monitor Your Health - IEEE Spectrum, IEEE Spectrum. (2017) [cited 2021-04-05]. URL: https://spectrum.ieee.org/the-human-os/biomedical/diagnostics/3-ways-ford-cars-could-monitor-your-health
W. Fehr, T. Lusco, et al, Southeast Michigan 2014 Test Bed project architecture update: Developing, refining and implementing the USDOT’s Connected Vehicle Reference Implementation Architecture, 2014 International Conference on Connected Vehicles and Expo, ICCVE 2014 - Proceedings, 2014, pp. 16–23. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCVE.2014.7297535
Crocodile, Harmonisation of Data Exchange, Results Of The Crocodile Project, 2016. URL https://www.its-platform.eu/filedepot_download/1838/5838
Crocodile, IMPLEMENTATION OF HARMONISED INFORMATION EXCHANGE RESULTS OF THE CROCODILE 2 PROJECT, 2019. URL https://www.its-platform.eu/filedepot_download/1838/6552
C-Roads, Core Members: C-Roads, (2019) [Cited 2020-02-02]. URL https://www.c-roads.eu/pilots/core-members.html
C. Platform, Specification for interoperability of backend hybrid C-ITS communication, 2019. URL https://itscorridor.mett.nl/c-its+corridor/Achtergronddocumenten/handlerdownloadfiles.ashx?idnv=1514256
A. Froetscher, B. Monschiebl, C-roads: Elements of C-ITS service evaluation to reach interoperability in Europe within a wide stakeholder network: Validation steps and comparative elements used in a living lab environment in Austria, IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Jul. 2018, vol. 2018-June, pp. 1–5. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/VTCSpring.2018.8417874
C-ROADS, C-ITS deployment takes off, increasing road safety and decreasing congestion, (2019) [cited 2021-02-19]. URL https://www.car-2-car.org/press-media/press-releases/press-details/c-its-deployment-takes-off-increasing-road-safety-and-decreasing-congestion-80/
Z. Lokaj, M. Srotyr et al, Technical part of evaluation solution for cooperative vehicles within C-ROADS CZ project, 2020 Smart City Symposium Prague (SCSP), 2020, pp. 1-5. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/SCSP49987.2020.9133885
NordicWay, Deployment Roadmap Recommendations for future work NordicWay, (2017). URL https://uploads-ssl.webflow.com/5c487d8f7febe4125879c2d8/5c5c02c69c00c4851bedf1cb_NordicWay_Final%20Report.pdf
Nordicway2, (2017) [cited 2020-02-06]. URL https://www.nordicway.net/
SCOOP@F Part 2, EUROPA - SCOOP@F Part 2 | TRIMIS - European Commission, (2018) [cited 2020-02-06]. URL https://trimis.ec.europa.eu/project/scoopf-part-2
D. Kountche, J. Bonnin, H. Labiod, The problem of privacy in cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITS), 2017 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops, INFOCOM WKSHPS 2017, Nov. 2017, pp. 482–486. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/INFCOMW.2017.8116424
SCOOP, SCOOP Cross Tests : a key step for European interoperability - SCOOP Project : connected road and vehicle (2019) [cited 2020-02-06]. URL http://www.scoop.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/en/scoop-cross-tests-a-key-step-for-european-a43.html
A. Boniou, About SAFER-LC – SAFER-LC project, SAFER-LC project, (2020) [cited 2020-02-07]. URL https://safer-lc.eu/about-safer-lc
SAFER-LC, SAFER Level Crossing By Integrating And Optimizing Road-Rail Infrastructure Management And Design, (2017) [cited 2020-02-07]. URL www.safer-lc.eu
European IoT Large-Scale Pilots, European IoT Large-Scale Pilots Programme Broachure, (2018). URL https://european-iot-pilots.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/IOT-Booklet-Def.pdf
S. Antipolis, D. Brevi, R. Scopigno, “linksfoundation.com LINKS ACTIVITIES ON VULNERABLE ROAD USERS, (2019). URL https://autopilot-project.eu/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2019/03/LINKS-VRUs-activitiesv01.pdf
G. Larini, Autonomous Driving Progressed by oneM2M: The Experience of the AUTOPILOT Project, 2019 European Conference on Networks and Communications, EuCNC 2019, Jun. 2019, pp. 204–208. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/EuCNC.2019.8801948
Intercor, Validation event InterCor in the Netherlands, pp. 4–5. URL https://intercor-project.eu/wp-content/uploads/sites/15/2017/10/Factsheet_Intercor-Testfest-DEF.pdf
G. Crockford, B. Netten, P. Wadsworth, Establishing a common approach to evaluating the InterCor C-ITS pilot project, IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Jul. 2018, vol. 2018-June, pp. 1–2. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/VTCSpring.2018.8417875
Mayaivanova, DRIVE C2X 27/06/2014 Deliverable D55.1 Version 2.1 I Report on compliance of DRIVE C2X system and applications with international ITS standards 201 Deliverable D55.1 Report on compliance of DRIVE C2X system and applications with international ITS standard, (2014).
Drive C2X, Drive C2X Project, p. 2, (2011) [cited 2021-02-21]. URL: http://drive-c2x.eu/project
Cooperative Connected and Automated Mobility (CCAM). MDPI, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/books978-3-03928-159-6
ECo-AT, European Corridor – Austrian Testbed for Cooperative Systems- Publication Event of Release 1 Documents, (2015). URL http://eco-at.info/downloads-206.html?file=tl_files/dynamic_dropdown/uploads/Presse/Praesentationen/ECo-AT_Publication%20Event%20of%20Release%201%20Documents_20150115.pdf
Ejct, European Center for Information and Communication Technologies - ejct, (2013) [cited 2020-06-14]. URL https://www.eict.de/projekte/#project-19
C-ITS, Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems and Services -Projects, (2019) [cited 2020-06-14]. URL https://www.car-2-car.org/about-c-its/
K. Hartman, connected-vehicle-pilot-deployment-program, Program Evaluation Survey Plan,(2019). URL https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/42403/dot_42403_DS1.pdf
C. Vargas, Together for Safer Roads, Anheuser-Busch First to Join NYC Connected Vehicle PilotNew Public-Private Partnership Supports City’s Vision Zero Goals – TogetherForSaferRoads, pp. 5–7, (2019).
United States Department of Transportation, Intelligent Transportation Systems - Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment Program, (2019) [cited 2020-02-03]. URL https://www.its.dot.gov/pilots/pilots_wydot.htm
DOT Connected Vehicle Pilot, THEA CONNECTED VEHICLE PILOT-FACT SHEET. (2019) [cited 2020-02-03]. URL https://www.its.dot.gov/pilots/pilots_thea.htm
THEA, Connected Vehicle Pilot, (2019) [cited 2021-04-01]. URL https://www.fdot.gov/traffic/its/projects-deploy/cv/maplocations/thea-cvp.shtm
ITS Joint Program Office, “WyomingCVPilot_Factsheet,” vol. 80, (2016). URL https://www.its.dot.gov/factsheets/pdf/WyomingCVPilot_Factsheet.pdf
DOT Connected Vehicle Pilot, Wyoming DOT Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment Program, (2015) [cited 2021-04-01]. URL https://www.its.dot.gov/pilots/pilots_wydot.htm
THEA, Intelligent Transportation Systems - ITS Deployments, (2019) [cited 2021-04-01]. URL https://www.its.dot.gov/pilots/cv_pilot_worldwide.htm
Austroads, Austroads Strategic Plan 2020-2024, AP-C29-20 (2020).
P. van Dijk, S. Australia, Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) for Cooperative Intelligent Transport System (C-ITS) data messages, (2017) [cited 2021-05-14]. URL www.austroads.com.au
M. Fallgran, On Selected V2X Technology Components and Enablers from the 5GCAR Project, IEEE International Symposium on Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting, BMSB, 2018, pp. 1-5. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/BMSB.2018.8436731
M. Fallgren, “White Paper 5GCAR : Executive Summary White Paper 5GCAR : Executive Summary,” no. 761510, (2019). URL https://5gcar.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/5GCAR-Executive-Summary-White-Paper.pdf
G. Vazquez, Deliverable D5.1 Description of 5GCroCo Business Potentials Deliverable D5.1 Description of 5GCroCo Business Potentials Description of 5GCroCo Business Potentials, Marc, (2019) [cited 2021-05-14]. URL http://www.5g-ppp.eu
F. Ertico, F. Fischer, J. Ferragut, 5G HarmoniseD Research and TrIals for serVice Evolution between EU and China D4 . 1 : V2X Development and Test Plan, (2019).
HUAWEI, Wuxi Internet of Vehicle (C-V2X) Project Use Cases list - Huawei United Kingdom, www.huawei.com, (2019) [cited 2020-12-06]. URL https://www.huawei.com/en/industry-insights/outlook/mobile-broadband/lte/use-cases/wuxi-internet-of-vehiclec-project-use-cases
P. Lancia and J. Sinnott, AT, Ford, Nokia and Qualcomm Launch Cellular-V2X Connected Car Technology Trials Planned for the San Diego Regional Proving Ground with Support From McCain | Qualcomm, (2017) [cited 2020-12-06]. URL https://www.qualcomm.com/news/releases/2017/10/31/att-ford-nokia-and-qualcomm-launch-cellular-v2x-connected-car-technology
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Acta Technica Jaurinensis
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.